The English teaching as International language (EIL) takes place in a great context of variety. In Singapore, they use English as the medium and the second language of their students. In other countries like Thailand, students bring English to the classroom with their own distinct variety of English. In other countries like Indonesia nowadays, the learning of English in public schools encouraged through national examinations. Moreover, each country has their great diversity and variety in English teaching, for example, public school versus private institutions and rural versus urban institutions is quite different. English as International actually have a complicated or complex curriculum development because for each variety of the English should be informed by a theory of language learning and teaching. This paper firstly will explain the English language growth and how it develops the EIL pedagogy. And throughout this paper, I argue that since an international language pedagogy is no longer linked to a particular culture of native speaker. Also since one of its primary uses will be for bilingual speakers of English like our country, in order to communicate with other bilingual speakers or even the native speaker of English. It is no longer suitable and appropriate to use the model of native speaker to inform curriculum development especially in Indonesia English Language Teaching (ELT).
Most people nowadays agree that English is a global lingua franca. English has gained this status not because of a growth in the native speaker’s number, but rather because of an increase in the individuals number in the world nowadays who are gaining English as an additional language. This situation has resulted in a marvelous growth in the number of second language English speakers. In fact, (Graddol, 1997) says that during the next 50 years, the number of people using English as their second language will grow around 462 million from 235 million. Contributing to its status as a global lingua franca, the growing number of people in the world who have awareness with English allows English to act as a language of wider communication for a great variety of purposes. To develop an appropriate curriculum for EIL, it is important to examine how English has reached its status as an international language and how this role has transformed the language.
(Brutt-Griffler & Samimy, 2002) says that one of the international language central features is the spread of the language. It spread like what Brutt-Griffler (2002) explains about ‘macroacquisition’. It does not through speaker migration but rather by many individuals in an existing speech community gaining the English language. Although the English original spread was clearly due to speaker migration, resulting in the development of largely monolingual English-speaking communities such as the Inner Circle countries. In addition, based on historical records, originally English in Indonesia spread due the speaker or colonizer. Dutch language was replaced by English as the first foreign language, and has recognized as such in Indonesia since 1955 (Alisjabana, 1976). Since the 1980s, English in Indonesia has been considered to be the most important foreign language. The government’s and community’s interest in English as foreign language (EFL) has been growing since the early 1990s (EFL) (Alwasilah, 1997). As Graddol’s projection shows before, the current English language spread are due to individuals gaining English as an additional language for international and in some contexts intranational communication. However, unlike speaker migration, this language spread results, not in monolingualism but rather large-scale bilingualism.
Nowadays, Many English bilingualism learners may desire to learn English language because of its growth through macroacquisition. In order to share information with others about the culture and identity of their own countries, to encourage the economic development, to promote trade and tourism, and exchanging information they need to learn English. Those kinds of purposes for using and learning English in the world, it challenges the basis of traditional cultural English in which the English teaching English has often involved learning about the concerns and cultures of the terms ‘Inner Circle countries’ such as Canada, Australia and the United States (Kachru, 1985). Since an international language does not belong to any country but rather to an international community. Smith (1976) explains that the learners of EIL does not need to internalize the cultural norms of native speakers of English. The second, the ownership of EIL has become ‘de-nationalized’. The third, the educational goal of EIL often is to enable learners to communicate their ideas and culture to others.
Throughout this essay, it has explained that the development of English as a global lingua franca has transformed the nature of English in terms of how it relates to culture and how it used by English speakers. As discussed above, the spread of English nowadays is largely the result of macroacquisition and in future it will lead to more user of bilingual English. Its growing number recommends that a productive theory of EIL teaching and learning should recognize the various ways in which English used within multilingual communities. Normally for using and learning English, the bilingual English users have specific purposes. They using their English or other languages to help their needs in many additional languages. They often use English to access the enormous available information and knowledge in English and to contribute to this English knowledge base such as teacher. As Crystal (1997, p. 110) stated that English is the medium of a great deal of the world’s knowledge, especially in such areas as science and technology. But, they also share similar purpose. It is to use English language as a language of wider communication. It resulting in cross-cultural encounters being a central feature of the use of EIL. Therefore, one of the major assumptions that need to inform in EIL curriculum development is a recognition or awareness of the diverse ways in which bilingual speakers make use of English to fulfill their specific purposes.
The second major suggestion that our country needs to inform EIL curriculum development is Indonesian bilingual users of English language do not need gain competence like native speaker of Inner Circle. This kind of suggestion presumes that there is some agreement as to what makes up a native speaker, although this is not the case. In current Indonesia ELT learning especially in curriculum 2013. It objectives frequently posit that the purposes of most bilingual learners of English is to develop grammatical standards, phonological patterns, and discourse competence of the Inner Circle like English, America, Australia, and etc. Though, there are several reasons some of nowadays English bilingual users may not have the same purposes. First, on a practical level of the language based on what McKay(2003) explains, the user may not need to gain the full range needed by English monolingual speaker o since their use of English specifically and restricted to largely formal domains of use. Second, there are attitudinal reasons they may not want to gain competence like Inner Circle or native speaker. It particularly regarding pronunciation and pragmatics of their mother tongue which makes variety of English pronunciation like Thailish (Thailand-English) Singlish (Singapore-English) Taglish (Tagalog, Philippines-English) Japanglish (Japan-English), etc (nerdygaga, 2013). Third, if, as I have argued throughout the paper before. English as an international language belongs to the one who use it. There is no reason to force some English speakers to be more privileged and thus provide standards for other users of English outside the Inner Circle.
The third suggestion that needs to inform EIL curriculum development is a recognition or awareness of the fact that English no longer belongs to any specific Inner Circle’s culture, and there is a need to be culturally aware to the context of diversity in which English educated and used. In terms of subject materials, this suggests that the traditional use of Western cultural content in ELT texts needs to be examined. There are clear advantages to the use of source culture content. Such content minimizes the potential of marginalizing the values and lived experiences and identity of the learners. Sharifian (2009, p. 5) explains that “The focus in the EIL paradigm is on communication rather than on the speakers’ nationality, skin color, and so on, those factors which in the metaphor of ‘Circles’ acted as symbolic markers of the politicized construct of ‘native speaker’, for example (Brutt-Griffler & Samimy, 2002)” However, using English as an EIL has directly and indirectly shaped our ways of thinking which may ultimately shape our identity (Ha, 2008). Source culture content can also encourage learners to gain a deeper understanding of their own culture and identity so they can share these insights when using EIL with individuals from different cultures. Perhaps most significantly, source culture content does not place local teachers in the difficult position of trying to teach someone else’s culture.
The role of culture in English instructional materials is another range of ELT curriculum development that often indicates a model of native speaker. It is an approach that must be reconsidered regarding EIL curriculum development. The knowledge of culture or the term that we knew as intercultural communication often provides the center for the content and topics used in classroom discussions and language materials. Which culture to use in instructional materials needs to be carefully considered regarding the teaching of an international language.
Traditionally, like the current Indonesian curriculum which still use EFL as an approach of curriculum development in ELT. There are many English-language textbooks have used target culture topics. Many public school which entitled International Based School (IBS) like Cambridge textbooks which use target culture of native speaker content. Because it published in Inner Circle countries, some ELT teacher believe such information of the textbooks materials will motivate their students to learn more about English-language. Whereas it is possible that target cultural content is motivating to some students, it is also rather possible that such content could be largely irrelevant, boring or even confusing for some students. If one of the purposes to gain English today for learners is to provide information to others about their own community, identity and culture. It seems a little reason to promote the cultural content of English language classroom. Particularly, the target language content can cause English bilingual teachers insecure because they lack specific knowledge about particular target cultures. (McKay S. L., 2002).
EIL curriculum development suggest separating ELT from the culture of Inner Circle or native speaker countries. It also suggests that teaching methodology has to proceed in a manner that respects the learning of Indonesian culture which is our local culture. An understanding of learning these cultures should not be based on cultural stereotypes, in which assertions of the users’ roles and approaches which often compared to Western culture (McKay S. L., 2003). EIL curriculum development depends on a particular classrooms examination rather an understanding the learning of local cultures. Although it is important to identify what happens in a specific classroom that influenced by social, political and cultural factors of the larger community, each classroom is unique in the way the learners and teacher interact with one another in the process of English learning. McKay (2003) says that given the diversity and variety of learning the local cultures, it is unrealistic to imagine that one method, such as CLT, will meet the needs of all learners. Because of that, local teachers must be given the right and the responsibility to use methods that are culturally sensitive and productive in their students’ learning of English.
The conclusion, ELT in Indonesia traditionally have been largely thought as an instructional foreign language context which follows to the Inner Circle countries. English-speaking countries like in the Outer and Expanding Circle learn English often as a replacement for their first language. Nowadays, however, English is being used and studied more as an international language in which people gain and learn English as an additional language of wider communication to help them achieve the global information and knowledges. Therefore, because of this shift of English purposes, the native speaker dominance and their culture has seriously challenged. Given this shift in English, it is time to recognize and aware the multilingual context of English use and to put aside a native speaker model of curriculum development. Only then our country can use an appropriate EIL curriculum developed in which Indonesian local teacher take ownership of English and the manner in which it taught.