The representing one of the maximum(center) and the

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The representing one of the maximum(center) and the

The author began his article by mentioning the speed
of changes in the 20th and 21th  centuries, although the change is a cosmic
nature, the change of the 1990s was faster and greater which made the outlook
for the future even more difficult, with the society confined to two layers
representing one of the maximum(center) and the other lowest(parties) because
of the new power, knowledge and economic polarization, so he assure the
importance of not giving in and believing in change through the challenge by analyse
the problem, reflect and act to make things better, he is intended here for
development specialists who are sent to poor countries to help them achieve
development.

The speed of change is not only about achieving what
is positive but also what is negative, and negative often involves the poor,
such as globalization, despite it is advantages to the north, but it is
disadvantages have been concentrated in the south by increasing absolute
poverty, deprivation and income inequalities, so development as “good
change” is defined by the organizations and institutions in the global
north without ask the poor people what they would like to see.

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We can define the development in the south as phantom
development in case the source is external, because the main objective is to
impose a system of capitalist states on them, which constitutes a type of
colonialism or extortion, and the first who adopt this policy is America, and
turned it into a tool to control the third world countries, as in the case of
Palestine, we can consider the Oslo accords as a justification for development
interventions in Palestine, and if not mentioned by Chambers; but it is a
historical point.

Chambers has designed a variety of tools that can be
used to do this, including PRA exercises like transect walks and social
mapping, because chambers supports with generates synergies by particular
methods to determine the behavior and attitudes of facilitators which is
fundamental to participatory, and sharing and partnership, in addition to
empowerment the weak, although PRA confronts the dominant and superior
behavior, so PRA implied entail reversals of what known as normal and demand
changes which are institutional, professional and personal, to reorientation
not revolution.

Chambers presented the most important mistakes made by
PRA over three generations, the first generation problems were to establish and
spread PRA, the second generation problem was the bad practice with the
practitioners; which affected the PRA and made it without substance and not
internalized, and because of the importance of attitudes and behavior the
trainers have to use motivational and practical methods instead of
indoctrination and traditional ways, as for the field practice and ethics the
trainers must avoid acting with dominance and supremacy which is can damage the
participatory process, in addition to gender discrimination, taking from local
people without giving, and arousing unmet expectations to local people;
although they are unable to implement them, the third generation problem is
about providing training for financially challenged small NGOs and the language
elitism.

There is a three pillars of PRA, the first one is
participatory training through learning by doing and experiencing, precepts and
principles which trainees must master in dealing with local people.

Empowerment in PRA can be in several angels; firstly
when the poorer empower by differentiation groups which make them more
awareness and confidence to confront other and argue their case, but also it
depends on who are empower and how they used the power, secondly the methods
and process that add to the local people knowledge, skills and confidence,
resulting in new leaders in society, thirdly community level organization
because empowerment can be weak unless it is embodied in institutions, forty
conflict and negotiation.

 Regardless of
grants and material support, development remains limited and infective as long
as it is source is external, because the international programs aimed primarily
at reducing the unemployment rate, by exporting them to poor countries with
financial support and conditions to achieve their interests under the pretext
of development, this implicitly prevents poor countries from achieving
sustainable and real development, by concentrating support in specific hands
and directing them to activities that are useless in development, especially if
the support does not serve the need class at all levels; and this is possible
through direct dealing with the people, without being satisfied with numbers
and indicators.

Real development puts society and people first;
through the development of human resources and formulation of training programs
And does not deal with a relationship upper-lower, to be more efficient.

the basic ideas is famous by chambers is putting first
last, and putting last first, by giving priority to the poor, motivated by
generosity and morality away from selfishness and arrogance, although his ideas
are incompatible with the nature of human beings, in terms of putting the last
first; there is no one extends his strength to others at the expense of his
personal interest; 

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