The that affect dopamine regulation in the presynaptic

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The that affect dopamine regulation in the presynaptic

The third
version of the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia refers to the theory that schizophrenic
symptoms are caused by pre synaptic hyper dopaminergic signalling due to
potential risk factors. Literature agrees that the
dopamine hypothesis has contributed to a significant understanding of the
underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia due dopaminergic dysregulation in
specific pre frontal brain regions (Brisch et al., 2014). It is important to understand
that schizophrenia is more than a state of psychosis, as both negative and
cognitive symptoms link to poor quality of life, and an inability to function (Lin et al., 2013). Howes and Kapur (2009) acknowledge
that the Dopamine Hypothesis III gravitates towards “psychosis – in –
schizophrenia” (p.556), potentially limiting the extent to which is can be
applied to every aspect of schizophrenia. However, throughout this essay new evidence
will be considered in order to disregard these accusations and acknowledge the
extent to which excessive dopamine affects the onset of schizophrenic symptoms.

Even though there is strong evidence of the role of dopamine, it fails to acknowledge what may be influencing abnormal dopamine levels. Glutamate
has been found to regulate dopamine synthesise through NMDAR receptors giving
explanation into how dopamine activity may be regulated through this
neurotransmitter.

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The Dopamine
Hypothesis III considers an array of complex factors linking both environmental
and biological aspects that affect dopamine regulation in the presynaptic dopamine
striatal. Thus accounting for individual differences in genetic predispositions
and sociocultural factors such as stress and trauma. Presynaptic hyper dopaminergic
functioning is critical to understanding how particular symptoms arise in schizophrenia.

Although dopamine activity cannot be explicitly measured, radiotracers of brain
images allow us to assess presynaptic dopamine functioning. Evidence has found
that presynaptic dopamine functioning is elevated in individuals with
schizophrenia, and has been linked to the onset of psychosis. Findings have
found that in 7 out of 9 studies elevated dopamine in presynaptic striatum was
found in those with schizophrenia. The use of fluorodopa radiotracers enables
us to study over-activity of dopamine in the brain with results implying that
in both medicated and unmediated schizophrenics, dopamine functioning is seen
in the pre synaptic (McGowan et al, 2004). This suggests that by decreasing
dopamine in the presynaptic striatum, psychotic symptoms would be reduced. However,
an interesting factor that should be taken into consideration when looking at
research into presynaptic dopamine functioning is whether the individual is
stable or relapsing from the disorder. These different states may cause
presynaptic dopamine functioning to alter, potentially influencing the results.

By acknowledging this, research into these differences as these findings would
have important implications on treatments (Laruelle, Abi-Dargham, 1999). 

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