The This document represented Anglo-Sikh relations. It

The ‘Treaty of Amritsar’ was an established agreement between the current Maharaja ofPunjab, Ranjit Singh and the British East India Company. This document represented Anglo-Sikh relations. It was formed when Napoleon was attacking many European countries. Outof fear the British sent Mr. Charles Metcalfe to the Sikh Court bearing gifts to the Maharaja,saying the English would like to maintain congenial relations with them. Willingly theMaharaja agreed, and the treaty was signed on April 25th, 1809. It was beneficial for the SikhEmpire because it kept the British as allies rather than foes for the majority of Punjabs’Golden Era’. The entente stated that the British were able to keep all the land south of theSutlej River in their possession and the Sikh kingdom was able to keep the land which wasnorth of the river. Even though this meant that the Sikhs would not be able to expand theirkingdom throughout all of India, but they did not think too much of it since it kept theirrelationship with the British on friendly terms. Alongside deciding who receives what part ofwhich land in the country; the treaty also affirms that the British would not attack Punjabwhile Ranjit Singh reigned as the ruler of state. The treaty was written to be in favour of theBritish rather than Sikhs.One of the biggests benefits the Sikhs received from signing the ‘Treaty of Amritsar’ washaving gregarious association with the British Empire. Signing the document would leaveRanjit Singh’s reign peaceful.Since Punjab did not have to worry about a war with theBritish this left the Maharaja more than enough time to capture many other territories inIndia like; Jammu, Gujarat, Attock, Peshawar, Multan, ect.. While capturing these locationsnot only did Ranjit Singh create a larger army, and kingdom but he created one of the bestnations of the era. There were people of different caste, creed, colour, religion, culture,living together in one neighbourhood expressing unity. When the Maharaja captured a newpremise he would see if the current ruler was fit to govern the area. If they were not then theMaharaja would punish them of their deeds and provide the domain of a new ruler. Thisgave the appearance of Ranjit Singh as an impeccable leader and the ruler of a succulentkingdom. So if the English ever did decide to break the treaty, the Sikhs would be prepared.Fortunately they never did.The ‘Treaty of Amritsar’ explained that the British would not declare war on Punjab aslong as Ranjit Singh was on the throne. After this agreement was signed the Maharajareigned over the throne for thirty more years. Maharaja Ranjit Singh expected his successorPrince Kharag Singh to be fully trained on how to run a kingdom by then but little did heknow due to unknown reasons Prince Kharag was never thoroughly taught how to run thedomain. After his father’s death when Kharag was given the throne he started to neglect allstate affairs entirely and busy himself doing things he enjoyed such as; womanising, opium,wine, and drinking. With the carelessness of the new king, the downfall of Punjab hadbegun. Shortly after the throne was given to Kharag Singh he passed away with Mercurypoisoning. After the King’s short period as regent his son Naunihal Singh was awarded thethrone. The day he was given his hand to Punjab Naunihal Singh passed away. AfterNaunihal Singh had passed away from such a brutal death his uncle Sher Singh was giventhe throne. He was one of the only sons of Ranjit Singh whom actually had slight knowledgeof how to run such a big empire. Dolefully Sher Singh was shot with an arrow and passedaway. All of the earlier deaths of princes were rumoured to be done by two Dogra brothers:Gulab Singh and Suchet Singh. The last heir to the throne was Duleep Singh. Duleep wasonly 5 years old when he received the throne, his mother, Jind Kaur, as regent of the realm.This is when the British knew the Sikh Empire was at its lowest and decided to attack.These attacks led to the first (1845-1846) and second (1848-1489) Anglo-Sikh wars and someminor battles in between. None of these successors were ever properly trained to becomekings hence the degradation of the imperium. When Duleep’s time to reign came the Britishcaptured and exiled his mother and the East India Company took over, leaving Punjab to godown. Duleep was kidnapped by the British, and forced to convert religions. Duleep didn’tremember anything of the beautiful Sikh Kingdom that his father worked so hard to build.The only thing the ‘Black Prince’ (of Perthshire), had known about the empire was themesmerising stories his mother used to reminisce about. When the British attacked not onlydid they do it so strategically even the Sikhs couldn’t figure it out but they also had spiessending them information also receiving instructions. These spies were none other than TejSingh and Lal Singh, the commanders of the army. They were spies of the English out ofgreed and selfishness. These two Sikhs were offered gold, riches, fame, and their ownkingdoms to rule over. They deserted the Sikhs during the early stages of the battlesfollowing the first Anglo-Sikh war. The following events are examples of how the treaty hadbeen written in the English’s favour. If there had been any child who was fully inculcated toinherit the seat of royalty this would not have been a problem; but it is clear no child wouldhave been able to replace Ranjit Singh’s intellect and responsibility. Leaving the British tohave the upper hand in the end.The English and Punjabi’s have a very perplexing relationship. Sometimes filled withlove, other times hate. Below is a diagram of the Sutlej River divided into the Sikh andEnglishmen’s regions.The English had taken the land nearest to the Frenchman’s land due to Napoleon’s treatywith Russia (1806). The British army thought that if they reached out and agreed to takeover the locations closest to French-Indian territory it would be easier for them to attack andmake it all under the English rule. If it worked out well for them or not is unfathomablethough it is clear that they were successful in taking over the glorious nation of India by1849, which was also the year in which the second Anglo-Sikh war had ended. Since thetreaty agreed to let the English have the south of Sutlej, there were already British forces inIndia when they decided to attack making it easier for the British to build forts, stockweapons, create navigation maps, gather army members in India willing to join theopposing force (i.e. the British).In conclusion, the ‘Treaty of Amritsar’ 1809, was written by the British through Mr, Metcalfeas an alliance between the Commonwealth of Nations and the Sikh Empire, represented byRanjit Singh. Though meant to be fair and equal the treaty was written with some biases andgives England the upper hand. At the time the Sikh Maharaja and his trusted companionsdid not think much of these demands and agreed to the document and its rules eagerly.Later realizing how many suitable changes could have been made to support the SikhEmpire. If these thoughts were produced by somebody in this victorious era of Sikhs theempire might have lasted longer after the death the man who brought Punjab back to lifeand showed the world what it was truly supposed to look like.This treaty at the time seemedvery beneficial but looking back at it was only useful until the end of Ranjit Singh’s reign.The Sikhs assumed having the English as allies for the time being would have let themexpand their bases to a level as high the European status’, leaving them to be able to fightwhoever comes up to duel. Though the lack of training which had been given to thebiological sons of Ranjit Singh and a constant number of ‘unbiological’ son’s begging tobecome the next heir there was much tension in the kingdoms air and the British coming toattack did not add any less pressure for them to act without weighing out all the pro’s andcon’s. Therefore the Treaty of Amritsar could have been avoided by the Sikhs which mayhave led to a longer life on the empire.