The first objective is to
estimate the effect of allowing a large scale expansion of nuclear power on the
climate mitigation. Hence, this results in sharing of nuclear electricity
supply is noticeable. Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) does not become economically
competitive before 2050. This is due to the availability of the renewables
options that allows more emissions in the earlier times but also because it consumes
time. Secondly, to understand under which conditions the effect of allowing
nuclear power is significant to the cost of the climate change mitigation and
in which case the effect is minor. The minor effect is when
the nuclear power phases out, only 5% of the sum of electricity supply by 2070
in the advanced nuclear scenario.
Next, the major effect is if all nuclear technologies are expanded, it can
decrease by 20% of the reduction cost as compared to if only the currently
technologies are available 1.
result for the first objective shows that the materials of foundations were
those with highest weight representing 62.3% of total weight of materials have
been identified to cause the most negative impacts as it consumed up to 50% of
the total embodied energy. Furthermore, the result of the second objective
indicates that concrete materials holds to be responsible for high embodied
energy, global warming potential and acidification potential as it is the most
material used in construction of masonry houses 2.
hydrological model was set up with data from 1980-1994 and validated with data
from 1996 to 2014. For the climate model, bias concerning precipitation and air
temperature changes are reported, but seem to be not strong enough to reject the
models. Based on the models, the climate is becoming wetter in winter and
spring and slightly drier in summer. However, there are some significant
uncertainties, namely the precipitation at winter season. Following that, the
hydrological and the climate model are assessed in combination. It was found,
that summers are likely to produce less power, due to a decline in streamflow.
In winters and autumns, uncertainty as to how much the streamflow changes are
large, but data supports a possible large increase of streamflow. By combining
the projected hydrological data with the model for hydropower generation, the
changes in summer and winter streamflow are directly reflected in the future
possible power generation. Again, uncertainty for the projections are larger
for winters, where the variation spans from -50 to 150 % than for summers,
where variation comprises a span of -50%. This extreme variability in data for
winters is likely to stem from the original climate model still 3.
the result shown for the first objective is that the researchers obtained an
amount of 32 literatures that proposed adaptation measures globally. Besides,
only 15% of the references to adaptation measures from the selected literatures
mentioned environmental impacts. Based on the statistics stated, we can assume
that the environmental impacts to climate change adaptation are being poorly
treated in the existing grey and academic literature. Furthermore, the
researchers had found a general lack of attention of EA to the context of
climate change adaptation as the result of the second objective. This was
because the researchers could not find any stakeholders focused on the
environmental effects of adaptation as they focused more on mitigation and
direct impacts of climate change. In addition, the researchers did not manage
to find any references to environmental impacts of adaptation in documents such
as, strategies, national plans nor ‘white papers.’ Plus, even an emphasis on
positive impacts of adaptation was not stated in any of these documents. This
concludes that EA did not take any serious actions on adaptation as they
focused on mitigation for the time being 4.
results were evaluated on the first and last decades. It shows that 25.42 °C
and 26.31°C is the average temperature respectively means that the gradient is
0.877°C. Based on the results, no significant trend can follow as the
precipitation has high uncertainty but according to USAID and UNDP there will
be increase in precipitations at all country.
Furthermore, GCM has presented that there will be decrease in water
resources during rain and dry season which is 10% and 12% respectively. This
trend shows the productions of hydropower will confront predicament in the
potential impacts for climate engineering can be divided into three dimensions.
Firstly, direct environment impacts, there are SRM projects that liberate sulphates
into the atmosphere, chemically polluting the air. Furthermore, indirect environment
impacts, climate engineering could decrease the global median temperature.
Moreover, climate mitigation, if the Chinese government believed that climate
engineering method could reliably control global warming, they would likely
change their future development plan. Moving on to governance, many of
technologies are modulated by international or national environmental laws,
while other technologies are not concentrated on. From a Chinese
perspective, China has a history of performing a large-scale engineering
operation to alter its geological conditions and local weather in order to
withstand natural disasters. Next, China reform its weather to avoid
agricultural disasters 6.