1914-1918: First World War took place and the Ottomans allied with Germany. Britain supported a revolt against the Ottomans and promised the Jews land in Palestine. Lord Balfour, the foreign secretary, issued a declaration in 1917.
1918: Arabs took control over Syria. The League of Nations allowed France and Britain authority over the territory that was once owned by the Ottoman. Britain gained control over the land that later became Israel, the West Bank, Gaza, and Jordan.
1921: Britain divided the area: East of River Jordan became the Emirate of Transjordan, and the West of Jordan became the Palestine mandate but was still under Britain.
1930: Jewish immigration began due to persecution by the Nazis. Local Arabs were not welcoming and this led to conflicts between the immigrants and Palestinians.
1947-49: The United Nations started to take control over the area that Britain had control. On May 15th, 1948 David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the foundation of the state of Israel. There were acts of violence due to disagreement from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan but this was quelled. An armistice took place in 1949 and this extended the area that was proposed for the Jews by the United Nations.
1948- 1949: Arab-Israeli War: Arab states declared War against Israel. They wanted to establish a unified Arab Palestine. Israel won the war in the end. But Israel went beyond the borders agreed upon the United Nations and took the western half of Jerusalem and parts of Palestine. Caused massive refugee problem in Palestine as Israel took over more land. At the end of the war, Israel controlled all of the land except for Gaza and the West Bank.
1956: Gamal Abdel Nasser took power in Egypt. He then nationalized the Suez Canal. Armies of Egypt and Syria cooperated with each other under Nasser’s control. Israel sided with Britain and France and invaded the Sinai peninsular in Egypt on 29 October 1956. In the end Israelis gave up in Sinai and British and French troops were removed from the area.
1964: Palestinian Liberation Organization founded. This was set to represent the Palestinian people and promised to destroy Israel.
1967: Israel launched a strike against the Arab troops and a six-day war erupted. Israel soon seized the Sinai and Gaza area from Egypt, the Golan Heights from Syria, the West Bank and the Old city of Jerusalem from Jordan. Tension grew onwards from the six-day war.
1973: After Israel’s strike, Syria and Egypt worked together and attacked lands controlled by Israel. In the end, however, Israel regained nearly all of the territory they had during the six-day war.
1978: Israel and Egypt signed the US broker Camp David Accords. As a result, Egypt regained Sinai.
1982: Israel invaded Lebanon on 6 June 1982. 3 years later, Israel gave back most of the land taken in Lebanon and a security zone was maintained until 2000.
1987: Jewish settlements increased in Palestine from 1980s. In 1987, Palestinians led a uprising against Israel.
1993: Oslo accords agreed. This provided recognition between the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and Israel; it also limited Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza. Peace deal signed between Jordan and Israel.
2000: Bill Clinton, Yasser Arafat, and Ehud Barak attempted to come to a final settlement, but this failed.
2002: A suicide bomb killed 29 Israelis. Israel called military reserves and took back areas of the West Bank. This was problematic as the area was the area where Palestinians had gained full control according to the Oslo accords. George Bush created a map for Palestine, which included dismantlement of Israeli settlements.
2003: Mahmoud Abbas became the Palestinian Prime Minister and he was aided by America.
2004: Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, the co-founder of Hamas in Gaza City was assassinated by Israel. Soon after, Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi, Yassin’s successor, was killed in a missile strike. After Arafat’s death, Mahmoud Abbas took the position of the chairman of PLO and won the presidency election, promising to make peace with Israel.
2005: Sharon and Abbas announced a ceasefire. Israel evacuated around 15,000 Jews from Gaza.
2006: A month long war took place between Israel and Hizbullah. The cause of the war was Hizbullah’s ambush on Israel’s side of the border as members of a patrol were attacked.
2007: The coalition between Fatah and Hamas ends and this resulted in Hamas controlling Gaza and Fatah controlling the West Bank.
February 2008: First rocket attack by Hamas on Southern Israel, this killed more than 120 Palestinians.
December 2008 and January 2009: The second rocket attacks also controlled by Hamas killed more than 1,300 Palestinians and 13 Israelis. Soon a ceasefire was agreed.
December 6th, 2017: Donald Trump announced Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
Key Terms and Countries involved
– USA (In the past they always refused to declare Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and did not want to cause any violence from their official statement. And this “would fatally undermine the US’ position as an honest broker between Israelis and Palestinians.”2 Trump recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and began the process of moving the embassy but is still open to negotiations.
– PLOBackground InformationJerusalem is a city located in the Middle East. Due to the religious and historical issues, Israel and Palestine continuously “claim the city as their political capital and as a sacred religious site.”1 Jerusalem contains several religious institutions that are important to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam; some examples of them are Dome of the Rock, al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. In the past the area was under the Ottoman Empire. The area was religiously diverse, including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. A strive for national identity grew as people developed an idea that they were Palestinians. Soon, Jews were joining the movement of Zionism, which states that Judaism is not simply a religion but can be considered as a nationality. Therefore, Jews believed that they deserved a land for Jews as a nation. This desire grew from the growing persecution by Nazis. Many migrated into Palestine as they believed that the region was the most suitable area for them. The Ottoman Empire collapsed after the First World War. British mandate over Palestine, and they allowed Jewish immigration. Tension between Jews and Arabs grew as the population of Jews grew steadily. Acts of violence due to this tension erupted. Due to these violent acts, Britain limited Jewish immigration. In 1947, United Nations divided British Palestine into two states: A Jewish state called Israel and an Arab state called Palestine. Jerusalem became an international zone due to its sensitive allocation from religion and politics. Britain gave Jews their state and gave Palestine independence from British control. After Israel made peace with some Arab states, the Israeli-Palestinian tension took place once again after the acts held by the PLO including through acts of terrorism. PLO claimed all of British Palestine’s land, meaning it wanted to destroy Israel completely. The PLO later opened up to dividing the land with Israel rather than controlling the whole land after acts of violence. Settlers from Israel were going into the West Bank and Gaza. Reasons for Jews to settle in these areas were religious, political, or financial as housing was rather cheap. Israelis pressured Palestinians through armies and limitations set on them. Soon, the Palestinians decided to take action by holding the first intifada. Began with boycotts and protests from Palestinians and Israel responded with heavy military action. In Gaza, people who were not satisfied with the PLO created Hamas, which was a violent extremist group dedicated to end Israel completely. Because of the ongoing and growing tension and violence, the leaders of both sides signed the Oslo accords, which allowed an independent Palestine and the retreat of Israelis. The direct outcome of the Oslo accords was the Palestinian authority. Gave Palestinians more freedom to self-rule. Members of Hamas attempted suicide bombs to stop the signing of the Oslo accords. As the Oslo accords went into progress, the people started to rally and called the Prime Minister a traitor. In the end the Prime Minister was shot to death by an extreme Israeli. Camp David summit in 2000 and Palestinians believe that peace is now a far thing and they lead a second intifada. Because of the second intifada, Israelis became much more skeptical that the Palestinians will ever accept peace. The Israeli government created check-points and walls to control Palestinian movements. A solution is now thought to be impossible. That year, Israel withdraws from Gaza. Hamas gains power but after a short war against the Palestinian authority, Gaza is divided from the West Bank. Gaza suffers from a complete blockade. Until today, Hamas and other violent groups have periodic wars with Israel. The fighting overwhelmingly kills Palestinians
1. Designate Jerusalem as an international protected zone with no ownership by any country but supervised by the United Nations.
2. Protect Jerusalem with similar boundaries as the Vatican City.
3. Protect religious heritages such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and work with United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
4. With consent from both Israel and Palestine, hold a meeting and come to a final settlement, must include America.