Vaccines specific bactericidal or opsonizing antibodies and therefore,
Vaccines are the antigenic preparations which stimulate body’s immune system to produce antibody against the antigen injected. Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to stimulate a protective immune response that will prevent disease in the vaccinated person if contact with the corresponding infectious agent occurs subsequently (WHO, 2005). Presently there are number of vaccines available in the market. We can divide the vaccine preventable disease in two parts that are bacterial vaccine preventable disease, for example diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, pneumonia, meningitis, cholera and viral vaccine preventable diseases such as influenza, hepatitis-B, rabies, measles, mumps, rubella etc (CDC, 2013).Vaccination is considered as the best prevention strategy in order to eradicate the disease. Vaccines include suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms, or products or derivatives of microorganisms. When these antigens are detected, several type of cells work together to recognize them and respond. These cells trigger the B lymphocytes to produce antibodies. Once produced, these antibodies continue to exist so that if same antigen is presented to immune system again, the antibody responds to it. Based on the understanding of immune response, new types of vaccines are developed with the improvements in the basic techniques (30).Meningococcal vaccines: Invasive disease occurs only in patients devoid of specific bactericidal or opsonizing antibodies and therefore, can be prevented by inducing these antibodies by vaccination. The first vaccine for the prevention of meningococcal disease was developed in 1912. Scherp and Rake (1935) identified capsular material from a meningococcus as a polysaccharide (31). However, real work on meningococcal vaccines started only after emergence of resistance to sulphonamides and penicillin. In the 1960s, polysaccharide vaccines based on group A and C capsule were developed (23). Of the five common serotypes responsible for >90% of meningococcal disease, vaccines are available for group A, C, Y and W-135. At present two types of meningococcal vaccines are licensed; meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines (bivalent and quadrivalent) and meningococcal conjugated polysaccharide vaccine.