Vietnam in the coastal areas, which hold

Vietnam and the road to biodiversity conservation

 

Nguyen Thai Thanh 201718504

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College of Agro-Biological
Resources Science

 

Summary

Role of biodiversity in Vietnam

There are
four main aspects that have been recognized: provisioning services, cultural services,
regulatory services and support services.

1. Provisioning
services: The
ecosystem is undoubtedly the most important source of life. It has direct
benefits for humans in namely agriculture, economics and sociology. Diversity
and richness in landscape and organisms have strongly provided Vietnam with
millions of jobs in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and pharmacology. GDP from
agriculture takes up approximately about 20% of national GDP. Warm weather in
the South and networks of rivers and streams give the ideal conditions for
cultivation, in fact, Vietnam ranks fifth in world for rice production
(evaluated by United States Department of Agriculture – USDA)

Figure 1. Percentage
contribution of agriculture, forestry and fisheries in gross domestic product
over the years

Source: General
Statistics Office (2013), Statistic on agriculture, fishery and forestry

 

 

 

Figure
2. Vietnam’s distribution of GDP in economic sectors of 2016 (unit: %)

Source:
CIA World Factbook / GDP – composition by
sector

 

2.
Cultural Services:
Vietnam’s landscape is pleasant to sightsee. Vietnamese tourism takes mass
advantage of its nature. Tourists arrive at Vietnam get excited with sailing in
between valleys, exploring the caves and forests or fruit picking and fishing.
Reported in the 5th National Report in 2015, about 70% of Vietnam’s
rapid tourism growth is occurring in the coastal areas, which hold high marine
biodiversity. Fourteen of the 30 National Parks and Natural Reserves indicated
they welcomed 728,000 visitors in 2011, with a total revenue of over 30 million
VND.

Figure 3. Income from tourism in
National Parks, 2011 (unit: million Vietnam Dong – VND)

Source:
National Report on Biodiversity 2011, Ministry of Natural Resources
and Environment (MONRE)

3. Regulatory Service: With great amount of water area and forest, weather regulation is
maintained at stability with rainfalls control carbon storage, air and water purification and waste
decomposition. Carbon stored as plant biomass is the largest carbon stock.

“Vietnam’s forests are highly valued in terms of carbon
storage and sequestration, especially the natural forests. This value is
directly proportional to the forest timber volume and biomass. Research
indicates the value of carbon storage of natural forests is 35- 85 million
VND/ha/year and the value of carbon sequestration is approximately 0.4 to 1.3
million VND/ha/year in forests in the North. In the Central forests, the carbon
storage value reaches 37 to 91 million VND/ ha/year, and the value of carbon
sequestration gets 0.5 to 1.5 million VND/ha/year. This number of the Southern
forests are 46 to 91 million VND/ha/year and 0.6-1.5 million VND/ha/year
respectively.”

  (5th National Report,
sourced from Vietnam Environment Administration (VEA), Biodiversity Conservation
Agency (2013), thematic report on ecosystem and Protected Areas, NBSAP.)

 

Table 1. Total carbon stock
estimated in mangroves in Kien Giang

Places

Area of mangrove (ha)

Carbon stock (ton/ha)

Hon
Dat

793

64,800

Rach
Gia

193

15,800

Chau
Thanh

60

4,900

An
Bien

518

42,300

An
Minh

973

79,500

Total

2,537

207,300

Source:
Project to preserve and develop Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve in 2010

 

4.
Support Service:
Needless to say, biodiversity accurately reflects eco-stability. Organisms need
support from other organisms to survive. Only when food sources are rich can
organisms live well. 

 

Rich biological resources

Vietnam has
a long, slender shape stretching along the Pacific Ocean, making its climate
varies from South to North. Diverse landscapes have made Vietnam rich not only
in cultures but also ecosystem. The country’s diverse biological resources have
long been recognized by the world, being that it is ranked 16th in
world’s most biologically diverse countries (information collected by news.mongabay.com)
This diversity is a result of areas in the country being divided by mountain
ranks, and many are isolated from the others.

According to
the 2005 National Environmental Present Condition Report, Vietnam is home to
approximately 16% of the world’s species. There is a total of 15,986 species of
flora have been identified, of which 10% are endemic. Vietnam’s fauna consists
of 307 nematode species, 200 oligochaetes, 145 acarian, 113 springtails, 7,750
insects, 260 reptiles, 120 amphibians, 840 birds and 310 mammals, of which 100
birds and 78 mammals are endemic.

Table
2. Records of species identified in Vietnam

Species
Group

The
number of identified species

1. Phytoplankton

Freshwater

Marine

About
2,000
1,438
537

2. Aquatic plants
– Freshwater
– Marine

About
680
20
653

3. Sea grass

14

4. Mangrove plants

94

5. Terrestrial plants
– Vascular plants
– Non-vascular plants (moss, fungi)

16,428
13,747
2,681

6. Freshwater invertebrates

About  1000

7. Marine invertebrates
– Zooplankton
– Zoobenthic

About  7,000
657
About
6,300

8. Soil invertebrates

About 1,000

9. Parasitic helminths

190

10. Insects

6,600

11. Fish
– Freshwater fish
– Marine fish

About  3,500
About
600
About
2,500

12. Frogs

167

13. Terrestrial reptiles

317

14. Marine reptiles (sea snakes, turtles)

21

15. Birds

840

16. Terrestrial mammals

312

17. Marine mammals

25

Source: National Biodiversity Report, MONRE
(2011), East Sea monograph – Episode IV organisms and marine ecology, Vietnam
Academy of Science and Technology (2009)

 

Threats to Biodiversty

There has
been a mass reduction in biodiversity in Vietnam, causation of which mostly
comes from human activities.

1. Illegal and excessive exploitation has led to a huge decrease in
biological resources. In recent years there has been a rising keenness for wild
life products, such as rhino horn, tiger bone and bear bile. These products are
believed to cure health-related problems, without any medical or scientific
proof. Some restaurants are also serving dishes form wild animals. According to
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, from 2010 to 2016, there were
more than 176 thousand cases of illegal hunting wild animals, with more than 60
thousand individuals, of which about 4000 are of endangered species.
Over-consumption can seriously lead to extinction of species, Vietnam is now
estimated to have less than 30 individuals of tiger in the wild, on the verge
of extinction.

Along side
with wild animals, wild plants are also in favor of the market, especially
timber species and rare pharmaceutics plants. Illegal forest logging has been a
rising problems in Vietnam. Plus, the slash and burn agriculture is still
dangerously practices by many ethnical tribes. Vietnam is rich in its tribal
diversity with ranges of mountains and a long history of migrating.
Unfortunately, many of the ethnicities living in highland areas, with little
access to information, still carry out the old cultivation methods without
appropriate knowledge of their negative effects to the environment. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of
forest change decreased by 18.5% to 2.06% per annum (statistics collected by
rainforests.mongabay.com) Moreover, according to Vietnam Forest
Administration’s statistics, each year from 2003 to 2009, approximately 25,000
ha of forest were converted for other land use purposes.

Fisheries
practices are also causing troubles. To meet new societal needs, fishing boats
have been using destructive methods such as electrifying and poisoning. Not
only do they establish unnecessary over-fishing, but also leave possibly
incurable problems to aquatic environment. High-value fishery products such as
lobster, salmon and abalone have been made domestic and stock farmed in large
amount. Excessiveness of individuals of a species brings up imbalance in local
ecosystem. Thus, pollute the water with excessed biological waste.

 

Figure
4. The volume of timber confiscated by year (m3)

Source:
Statistics from reports on confiscated timber over year by FPD, 2013.

 

Figure 5. The
number of wildlife trafficked by year (unit: individual)

Source: Annual reports of FPD, VAF (collected
from Vietnam 5th national report)

 

Figure
6. Area of water surface (million ha) used for aquaculture over the country
from 2000 – 2010

Source:
General Statistics Office (GSO) (2012), Statistics on area of surface water for
aquaculture

 

2. Population, which is caused by numerous
factors. Rapid rate of urbanization is one of them. Rise in households has raised
domestic wasted and lowered water quality as well as air quality, killing fresh
water organisms.

Currently,
Vietnam has very high population density, which is placing pressure on the
environment. Increase in personal vehicles, manufacture factories and public
constructions take parts in raising carbon dioxide concentration in rural air.
Vietnam ranked 31 on world scale of carbon dioxide emission in 2016, with 187
MtCO2.

Figure 7.
Population from 2010 to 2017 (unit: million inhabitants)

   

 

P3:
Conservation Laws and Plans

3.
Conclusion.