“When raised or brought up can affect their

“When a man is denied the right to live the life he believes in, he has no choice but to become an outlaw” -Nelson Mandela. Since the 5th century BC, curiosity and discussion had begun over the issues of crime and punishment. Over time people began to seek punishments for the crimes people had committed. Philosophers, criminologists, and mostly all other human beings started to wonder why these things were happening. Criminal behavior can be caused by child abuse and neglect, heredity and brain activity, peer influence, and drugs/alcohol. State and local government systems claims to sufficiently address the causes by initiating crime prevention programs, but are they really?    Child abuse is the physical, mental, or emotional maltreatment of a child. The way a child was raised or brought up can affect their behavior as an adolescent. “The earlier children are maltreated the more likely they are to develop behavior problems in adolescence” (Hunter). Factors that affects the consequences of child abuse and neglect are the child’s age and development status when the abuse happened, the type of maltreatment, duration or time span of the maltreatment, or the relationship between the child and the perpetrator. ” A National Institute of Justice study indicated that being abused or neglected as a child increased the likelihood of arrest as a juvenile by 59%. Abuse and neglect also increased the likelihood of adult criminal behavior by 28% and violent crime by 30%” (Widom). When a child has experienced abuse or neglect and they don’t have a good support system, they are at risk for  a serious unfavorable outcome that will gradually grow. “Risk factors that may contribute to poorer outcomes for children exposed to abuse and neglect include socio-economic disadvantage, social isolation, living in dangerous neighbourhoods, large families, a caregiver with depression, or alcohol and drug dependence, and whether the child has a disability” (Hunter). A large study reported that children who has been abused over multiple periods of time such as infancy, preschool years, early school years, etc. showed more problem behaviors than children that has been abused under a situational circumstance. “Children who experienced severe violence were reported (by their parents) in the National Family Violence Survey to have higher rates of conduct problems and rule violating behaviors than those who did not experience severe violence” (“Child Abuse and Neglect” 216).”In a study entitled “Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System”, it was mentioned that 16% of the inmate populations in the local jails have tested to be suffering from mental illness.”