(WHO, average of 5000 dengue cases are reported
(WHO, 2015). In 1996, 14 255 dengue cases was reported with 23 deaths. In Malaysia, average of 5000 dengue cases are reported annually in the early 1990s (Ministry Of Health Malaysia, 2004). From 44.3 cases out of 100,000 populations in 1999 to 181 cases out of 100,000 populations in 2007 has shown the incidence rate an upward trend (Ministry of Health, 2010). In 2010, dengue cases in Negeri Sembilan have increased dramatically (42.0%) to 1501 with 7 deaths, compared to 1056 with 6 deaths in the previous year (Ministry of Health, 2012). One of the states in Malaysia that had been through rapid land development is Negeri Sembilan (Ahmad, 2012)
Moreover, compared to Tuberculosis, Malaria and HIV/AIDS dengue fever is the number one disease among other diseases in Malaysia as in 2010 and 2011 (Shepard, 2010). Compared to 2013, in 2014, the number of cases doubled from 21 900 cases to 49 346 cases (Affendi, 2013). Since 1960s, the number of incidences increases more 30 fold where 100 countries are affected. It is estimated that, approximately 390 million dengue infections are reported yearly (Beatty, 2010).
On 30th January 2015, Bernama reported the number of dengue cases has increases has increase in six states in Malaysia. According to the director-general of Health Dr Noor Hisham Abdullah, the six states are Selangor, Perak, Kedah, Pahang, Penang and Kelantan. From January 15th to 21st , a total of 2,053 cases were reported in the six states increase by 177 cases (9.43%) compared to 1,876 cases in the previous week (January 8-14). This can be proven that it is the same cases which in Malaysia where the incidence has been rising for 15 years accept for the year 2011 and 2012 and the number decreased for the following years (WHO and Ministry Of Health, 2015).
Moreover, in 2010, related to a one year retrospectives study in Negeri Sembilan, the 1466 cases of dengue infection are categorized between the ranges of age from 8 months old to 89 years old. Hereby, the mean of age is 32.2 and 15.8 years old. In terms of ethnic groups, Malays, followed by Chinese and Indians (Ratio of 4.1:1.5:1) are the majority who were affected of dengue. More males were affected than females (Ratio 1.4:1.0), (Ahmad, 2012). The pattern of male predominance was observed consistently over several years across six culturally and economically diverse countries in Asia (Anker M, 2011).
In 1992, dengue infection has been an important public health concern in Malaysia since the first case was reported (The British Medical Journal, 1902). Across the world, there are huge number of dengue fever cases where 100 million cases of dengue infection and 500 000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with 12 000 deaths were reported per year (Gubler, 2002).
According to Braks (2003) the effects of anthropogenic changes on the environment are related to the spatial distribution and abundance of Aedes aegypti. The presence of vegetation in urban and rural areas is more associated with Aedes albopictus, whereas its abundance is generally limited to spaces modified by human activity. The key that determining factors of the presence and frequency of these species are among the environmental variables, rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity (Azil, 2010).
The serological and virological method are available for dengue fever which they are required specialized laboratory equipment to detect dengue fever. Compared to other techniques, serological tests are commonly to use as detection of dengue infection, (Fry, 2011). Therefore, as soon as possible there will have plans to make the test available as a home self-test kit and hoped that it can be available to public (Kassim, 2011). According to Wang, (2010), dengue educational programs should be add on to focus in the increasing knowledge of the importance of the early diagnosis of dengue and should be available to give benefits of the acceptance of the dengue home test kit. This has been noted that other factors such as specificity, reliability, cost, convenience and it must also be easy to understand regarding to the instructions which are important (Peeling et al, 2010). The knowledge regarding to the symptoms of dengue, the attitudes towards the environment and the practices should be aware by the community. The higher perceived barriers of the dengue presentation was associated with a higher proportion of perceived of home self-test kit and should be introduce for the test, including the prices and providing about the accuracy of the test kit (Wong LP et al, 2016).
1.2 Problem Statement
First cases dengue was reported in 1779 by David Bylon during an epidemic in Indonesia, there has been a dramatic expansion in disease distribution in the last 50 years (Hanley et al, 2010). Mosquito-borne is a viral infection that causes dengue fever either at rural or urban area (Balsam, 2015). In recent decades, the incident of dengue grown drastically among people around the world. The estimation that has been stated that almost 2.5 billion of population is at risk from dengue fever and it will expected to increase in numbers for the following years (WHO, 2009). The increase rate caused the despite of fogging campaigns activities that conduct by local authorities that support by Ministry of Health to control the Aedes mosquito in urban area, semi urban and rural area (Al-Dubai et al, 2013). According to District Health Office, 2012, there were having difficulties’ which they need to control dengue on the hotspots, this cases of dengue also remain uncontrolled and fluctuate due to the season in Malaysia. However, there is no specific antiviral treatment currently available for dengue fever and to date there is no approved vaccine for the prevention of dengue, this treatment involves trying to relieve symptoms and treatment to limit multi-organ complications subsequent to severe intravascular leakages (Guzman et al, 2010).