Why are wars caused? It can be caused in many ways such as religious reasons or to be independent from another country or because they just want more land. War can impact the society in many ways some are good and helpful while some are not. Such as the Revolutionary war they caught to get independence from the Britain since they gave the US extra taxes to pay for that they didn’t have to pay for. Also in the Battle Of Normandy also known as The Operation Overlord was a campaign in 1944 with the allies to invade Europe. Why was The Revolutionary War fought? The reason is that Britain made so many acts to pay for the French and Indian war. The acts including the sugar act which was an act when they had to pay 6 pence extra for each gallon of sugar. Following that was passed the stamp act which the US had to pay for each official papers, documents (birth certificate, death certificate, marriage papers, etc.) so all these and many more acts lead up to the war. Another thing that lead up to the war was that the US government didn’t have the right to go to Britain and vote for the acts and laws passed.In this essay I will be talking about the battle of Lexington and Concord.The British were planning to go to Lexington and Concord to capture Sam Adams and John Handcock, and then take the ammunition. But the spies and the British friends of Americans warned them about the secret attack so the Americans had time to hide their ammunition. Horse riders like Paul Revere went to warn the others. There is a myth that they shouted the British are coming but this could have confused some since they considered themselves British. As expected at about 5 in the morning the 700 British soldiers came. At dawn there were shots fired and the first shot was known as “The Shot Heard Around The World” must’ve been a large cannon or something right well that’s exactly what it was not. The Shot Heard Around The World was a shot that was mysteriously fired during the battle which went viral… on the newspaper. After that the Americans were forced to retreat and the British went on to concord just to come out empty handed For the British, 73 were killed, 174 were wounded, and 26 were missing.Paul Revere wrote about the war saying “We set off for Concord, and were overtaken by a young gentleman named Prescot, who belonged to Concord, and was going home. When we had got about half way from Lexington to Concord, the other two stopped at a house to awake the men, I kept along ….In an instant I saw four of them, who rode up to me with their pistols in their bands, said , stop. If you go an inch further, you are a dead man.” Immediately Mr. Prescot came up. We attempted to get through them, but they kept before us, and swore if we did not turn in to that pasture, they would blow our brains out, (they had placed themselves opposite to a pair of bars, and had taken the bars down). They forced us in. When we had got in, Mr. Prescot said “Put on!” He took to the left, I to the right … Just as I reached it, out started six officers, seized my bridle, put their pistols to my breast, ordered me to dismount, which I did. While the colonists lost many minutemen the battle was considered a big victory.Wait who were minutemen? The minutemen were colonists from the military who were trained in weaponry, tactics, and military strategies. In the other hand the British were planning a act called the Conciliatory Proposition that will alleviate, or make the taxing less severe and replacing the taxes to a “voluntary contributions”. By the time they released the act the Battle Of Lexington and Concord had occurred and the revolution had been stirring for some time and tension had been rising so the act was rejected. William Pitt was pleased to see that the colonists were doing everything they can to get their independence, but While William Pitt was pleased Thomas Gage was shocked. Then later when the colonists were celebrating at Lexington and Concord Thomas Gage was sent back to England. Later Joseph Warren quoted “Nevertheless, to the persecution and tyranny of his cruel ministry we will not tamely submit – appealing to Heaven for the justice of our cause, we determine to die or be free.” On June 6 1944 now known as the D-Day, the future president Dwight D. Eisenhower who was a supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in World War II gave direction to go and invade Europe which was called the Operation Overlord. Invading another nation may sound like a cruel thing but in this case the reason for the invasion was done with a good intention… hopefully, well the causes of the battle was that they wanted to take Germany from Hitler’s’ Nazi army in Western Germany. Hitler was not a good ruler he killed Jews in concentration camps and there were so many chaos’s in Germany. So by the first week of June 1944 the allied forces were poised to travel by ship or plane over the english channel to attack the Germans army at Normandy. on June 5. President Roosevelt had a window of best 4 days of respectable weather in which an invasion could be possible. whilst horrific weather hitting the transmission channel on June 4, Eisenhower wrestled with the melodic theme of suspending Operation Overlord. weather climate have been expected to get worse over the following workweek and he had 1000 of employees and thousands of lots of provision that have been in his words, hanging at the cease of a department . After a promising but cautious report from his meteorologist at 9:45 p.m. on June 5, Eisenhower told his body of workers that they have to go. At that night their allies at England made an inspiring statement which arrived the following day to each and every fighter(soldiers navy’s sailor etc). Also on the radio delivery of the message he tried to give all the fighters the feeling of confidence and leadership. He reminded that everybody in the world was counting on them and also reminded them that their opponents were not going to show any mercy and will fight with cruelty and told them to be brave and show how devoted they are to protect their country and to not accept anything other than the victory of their country. And at last he wished them a good luck and seeked God’s blessing on this noble undertaking. This was an amazing speech but like that wasn’t enough he also scribbled down a note that no one noticed that if this mission failed he was responsible for the things that happened, meaning he took all the blame if they failed the mission. While at the White House President Roosevelt awaited the start of the Operation Overlord. According to Doris Kearns Goodwin in No Ordinary Time, Roosevelt wanted to be in England with Churchill and Eisenhower for the important event, The Operation Overlord, but with his health declining his trip to England would have been impossible or nearly impossible. Instead he just sat in his office trying to finish up the speech he was going to say when the war began as his sons and daughters suggested. Instead he made a prayer. Later that night at 3 AM he was notified that the war had begun and called the radio stations and told them to broadcast a prayer for the soldiers that were on war at Europe. Some time later on June 11 1944 the beaches were full of 326,000 troops, more than 50,000 vehicles and some 100,000 tons of equipment had landed at Normandy. The Germans suffered a lot on their part since they were celebrating commander Rommel who was taking time off of the military. Also Hitler believed that the war was just a hoax trying to distract the Germans from a coming attack north of the Seine River so he had refused to send nearby troops to fight against the troops coming from The United States and sent reinforcement from far parts which had caused delays. He also didn’t want to call armoured forces. America’s allies helped the US by air attacks and took down some main bridges which forced the Germans to take detours and naval support from their allies. After many weeks the American allies fought through Normandy to the Germans who were not giving up and resisting. By the end of June the allies had already seized a great portion of Cherbourg including 850,000 men and 150,000 vehicles in Normandy and continued marching through France. By the end of August American Allies had reached The Seine River and completely took out Hitler’s Army,Nazi, in the Northwest of France which concluded the Battle of Normandy (operation overlord). The Allies then prepared to enter Germany to meet with the Soviet allied forces that were moving in from the east. The invasion then went against Hitler’s army the Nazis. It was a great psychological blow, also Hitler couldn’t send any troops from France to build the Eastern Front to advance against the soviet union. The following year on May 8 the Americans accepted a unconditional surrender from the Nazis. Also a week earlier Hitler had commited suicide, it was surely a victory for the Americans.These wars would not be possible without the help of science but what scientific advances did they have on these wars. “Sea,” said King Canute, the 11th-century Danish King of England, “I command you to come no further!”. As we all know none of us can control the sea but could we tell how the sea moves and the tide levels? It’s not enough to remember how they fought but how science contributed to these victories. For any war the sailors have to determine how tall the tides will be is very crucial which the United States Army learned in The Battle of Tarawa when the traveled in the Pacific Ocean. A miscalculation left the US stranded and the Japanese lets say used them as target practice. Predicting ocean tides is not as easy as you might think, a professor who taught undergraduates says I can testify to just how complex, even counterintuitive, this science is. About at the 17 century Isaac Newton stated that the ocean tides were dependant on the earth’s sun’s and moon’s gravitational pull. To determine the tides even with Newton’s statement I just told you about it will still be very difficult. Why? The reason is that the Earth has different and also changing angles. Water reacts to gravity strongly and the closest side to the moon is going to have a bulge, while on the other side of earth the water stays as a calm thin layer. Since the Earth also is pulled towards the Moon the waves could grow even more. Just imagine waves moving as earth rotates. Science is not only used to determine the waves but could also be used science was also used for mustard gas also used for ww2. Mustard Gas or Sulfur Mustard, Mustard gas can cause irritation in eyes sometimes short term blindness, diarrhea and breathing problems.As we learned wars can be crucial most of the times. Although they are deadly they are sometimes needed, for example The Revolutionary War was crucial since the Americans had less rights than the British so the war actually had a good impact. Wars are necessary since we don’t know what life would be like without the lessons that we have learnt from war, it could’ve been a perfect life or a life of misery being ruled by Hitler. After all The Operation Overlord was part of the World War 2 anyway which was fought mainly to defeat Hitler.